However, as the pollution of drinking water in areas of the state like Hoosick Falls has vividly demonstrated of late, New York still must do much more to protect our environment.
Present and future generations of citizens of the State have the right to an ecologically healthy environment. This right includes but is not limited to: the enjoyment of clean air, pure water, and scenic lands; freedom from unwanted exposure to toxic chemicals and other contaminants; and a secure climate…. Individuals and groups who believe their environmental right has been violated may seek redress in state courts against alleged violators, both public and private.
The state of Hawaii also has strong environmental provisions in their constitution:
Each person has the right to a clean and healthful environment, as defined by laws relating to environmental quality, including control of pollution and conservation, protection and enhancement of natural resources. Any person may enforce this right against any party, public or private, through appropriate legal proceedings…
These are just two examples New York can adapt. Recently, bill 6279 was submitted to the New York Assembly to add the following words to the New York State Constitution: “Each person shall have a right to clean air and water, and a healthful environment.” This amendment must be seriously considered.
• Many other states have amended their constitution to incorporate protecting the environment, including Illinois, Pennsylvania, Montana, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
“There is no similar provision in any other state constitution, and it is generally regarded as the most important and strongest state land conservation measure in the nation,” writes William R. Ginsberg about the “Forever Wild” provision in the book Decision 1997: Constitutional Change in New York.
The “Forever Wild” provision, approved in 1894, came out of a Constitutional Convention. Article XIV’s original wording, found below, still survives today in spite of numerous efforts to modify it. The clause was reaffirmed by delegates to the 1915 Constitutional Convention.
Since the ’70s, a number of states, including Illinois (1970), Pennsylvania (1971), Montana (1972), Massachusetts (1972), Hawaii (1978) and Rhode Island (1978), have added environmental rights provisions to their state constitutions.
In November 2008, the Science and Environmental Health Network and The International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School issued this insightful document entitled An Environmental Right for Future Generations: Model State Constitutional Provisions & Model Statute.
This article from July 1990 from the Montana Law Review analyzes Montana’s constitutional provision extending to its people the right to a clean and healthful environment.
The Environmental Bills of Rights included in the constitutions of 6 states are compared in this article by Art English and John J. Carroll.
The environmental conservation provisions enshrined in the constitutions of other nations around the world are studied in this article by Binod Prasad Sharma.
This presentation by Emile Gaillard discusses France’s Environmental Charter and its meaning.
Article XI of Hawaii’s State Constitution, entitled “Conservation, Control and Development of Resources” is very much worth reviewing to inform a discussion for New York.
To read more about state constitutions and environmental amendments, this pdf by Art English and John Carroll is very informative.
To learn more about a Constitutional Right to a Healthy Environment worldwide, read the above hyperlink written by David Boyd for Environment Magazine.
The following is language for a potential Constitutional amendment (not specifically written for New York), as proposed by the Science and Environmental Health Network and The International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School.
- 1: Right to an Ecologically Healthy Environment
(1) Present and future generations of citizens of the State have the right to an ecologically healthy environment. This right includes but is not limited to: the enjoyment of clean air, pure water, and scenic lands; freedom from unwanted exposure to toxic chemicals and other contaminants; and a secure climate.
(2) This right is self-executing although it shall be maintained and strengthened under the guidance of the State Legislature.
(3) Individuals and groups who believe their environmental right has been violated may seek redress in state courts against alleged violators, both public and private. The State Attorney General is also charged with the enforcement of this provision, with or without additional legislative guidance, on behalf of all citizens, including future generations.
(4) The environmental right enumerated in this section is held to be fundamental to present and future generations of citizens and shall be weighed equally with other rights found by state courts to be fundamental.
A noted New York environmentalist proposes this potential language for a constitutional amendment, which is adapted from an effort to have a similar amendment added to the United States Constitution:
“The natural resources of the state are the heritage of present and future generations. The right of each person to clean and healthful air and water, and to the protection of the other natural resources of the state, shall not be infringed upon by any person.”