• The 11 that have adopted constitutions or constitutional amendments providing that equal rights under the law shall not be denied because of sex are Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Montana, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming.
• 22 states have some sort of explicit protection against discrimination based on sex in their constitutions: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
Connecticut’s Constitution was amended in 1974 to read:
No person shall be denied the equal protection of the law nor be subjected to segregation or discrimination in the exercise or enjoyment of his or her civil or political rights because of religion, race, color, ancestry, national origin or sex.
California’s Constitution features an amendment that was added by proposition in 1996:
(a) The State shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting….
(f) For the purposes of this section, “State” shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the State itself, any city, county, city and county, public university system, including the University of California, community college district, school district, special district, or any other political subdivision or governmental instrumentality of or within the State.
(g) The remedies available for violations of this section shall be the same, regardless of the injured party’s race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin, as are otherwise available for violations of then-existing California antidiscrimination law.
(h) This section shall be self-executing. If any part or parts of this section are found to be in conflict with federal law or the United States Constitution, the section shall be implemented to the maximum extent
that federal law and the United States Constitution permit. Any provision held invalid shall be severable from the remaining portions of this section.
The state’s constitution was amended in 1972 to read:
Equality of the Sexes
Equality of Rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the state of Colorado or any of its political subdivisions on account of sex.
This state mentions people with physical disabilities, but not mental disabilities in an amendment passed in 1998. Also, “natural persons” in jurisprudence means individual human beings (as opposed to corporations, for instance):
All natural persons, female and male alike, are equal before the law and have inalienable rights, among which are the right to enjoy and defend life and liberty, to pursue happiness, to be rewarded for industry, and to acquire, possess and protect property; except that the ownership, inheritance, disposition and possession of real property by aliens ineligible for citizenship may be regulated or prohibited by law. No person shall be deprived of any right because of race, religion, national origin, or physical disability.
Montana’s State Constitution simply states:
“Neither the state nor any person, firm, corporation, or institution shall discriminate against any person in the exercise of his civil or political rights on account of race, color, sex, culture, social origin or condition, or political or religious ideas.”